TUGAS 1
BAHaSA INGGRIS BISNIS



Conditional Sentence

Conditional sentence merupakan kalimat pengandaian yang terdiri dari IF CLAUSE (anak kalimat) berfungsi sebagai syarat, dan MAIN CLAUSE (induk kalimat) yang menunjukan suatu hasil apabila syarat itu terpenuhi.

Examples:

If she comes here, I will give her a flower
If clause                       main clause



Jenis conditional sentence terdiri dari tiga bentuk, diantaranya yaitu:

A. Conditional Sentence Type 1 (Probable Condition)
Type ini digunakan untuk menunjukkan sesuatu hal yang mungkin terjadi di waktu yang akan datang. Condition type 1 dibentuk dengan if clause (dalam simple present tense) dan main clause (dalam simple future tense).


IF + SIMPLE PRESENT, SUBJECT + WILL + INFINITIVE


Examples:
·      If I we invite them, they will come.
·      If he has enough money, he will buy a novel.
·      If I have free time, I will help you.

Jika mengubah pola kalimat positif diatas menjadi kalimat negatif, maka menunjukkan bahwa sesuatu mungkin tidak akan terjadi pada waktu yang akan datang.


IF + NEGATIVE SIMPLE PRESENT, SUBJECT +
WILL NOT + INFINITIVE


Examples:
·      If I we don’t invite them, they will not come.
·      If he doesn’t has enough money, he will not buy a novel.
·      If I don’t have free time, I will not help you.

Notes:
Bentuk negatif dari conjunction “IF” yaitu unless atau If not.
Bentuk negatif dari “WILL” yaitu will not atau won’t.

Suatu kemungkinan (possibility), izin (permission), dan kepastian (certainty) dapat diutarakan dengan menggunakan:


IF + SIMPLE PRESENT, SUBJECT + CAN / MAY / MUST +
INFINITIVE


Examples:
·      If you leave now, you will arrive in time.
        (certain result – hasil tertentu)
·      If she starts now, she may arrive in time.
        (possibility – kemungkinan)
·      If he is in a hurry, he can use my car.
        (permission – izin)


B. Conditional Sentence Type 2 (Present Unreal)
Type ini digunakan untuk menunjukkan sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan fakta atau yang sesungguhnya di waktu sekarang.


IF + SUBJECT + SIMPLE PAST, SUBJECT + WOULD / COULD /
MIGHT + INFINITIVE


Examples:
·      If I had a plane, I would go around the world !
        (faktanya: I don’t have a plane, so I don’t go around the world).
·      If I could speak English well, Iwould apply for a job.
        (faktanya: I cannot speak English well. I will not apply for a job).

Conditional sentence type 2 ini juga digunakan untuk menunjukkan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan di waktu sekarang.

Examples:
·      If a robber came into my house,  would throw a knife at him.
·      If the crazy man chased me, I would ran away.
·      If he wanted to kill me, I would report him to a police.

If + Were, Would
“Were” digunakan sebagai ganti “was” sesudah semua subjek dan menunjukkan sesuatu yang formal atau untuk menunjukkan suatu keraguan (doubt) dan untuk membayangkan sesuatu.


Singular :
If I were
If you were
If she were
If he were
If it were


Plural :
If we were
If you were
If they were

Examples:
·      If I were sick, I would stay home today.
·      If he were in Solo today, he would come to my house.

If + Simple Past
dapat diikuti might atau could untuk menunjukkan kemungkinan (possibility), kemampuan (ability), kepastian (certainty) atau izin (permission) dimasa lampau.

Examples:
·      If you tried again, you would succeed. (certainty)
·      If you tried again, you might succeed.  (possibility)
·      If it stopped raining, we could go out.  (ability)

C. Conditional Sentence Type 3 (Past Unreal)
Type ini digunakan untuk menunjukkan suatu penyesalan atau tentang sesuatu yang tidak akan pernah terjadi lagi di waktu sekarang.


IF + SUBJECT + PAST PERFECT, WOULD / COULD /
MIGHT + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE


·      If you had gone by car, you would have arrived in Solo.
·      If you had studied English seriously, you would have spoken English well.
·      If she had tried harder, she would have been successful.

Condition type 3 juga dapat digunakan dengan menepakan “had” di depan kalimat. Bentuk ini adalah yang paling lazim digunakan.


IF + SUBJECT + PAST PARTICIPLE, SUBJECT +
WOULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE


·      Had I known you were not there, I would not have come.
·      Had I met him at the airport, I would have given your letter.
·      Had he found the right buyer, he would have sold the car.


SOURCE:
Danny R. Cyssco. English Grammar Practice For TOEFL Preparation Test.
           Penerbit: Puspa Swara.
Danny R. Cyssco. 2007. Kumpulan Pola & Intisari Bahasa Inggris untuk 
          SMA. Penerbit: Puspa Swara.
R. Maas Shobirin. 2008. Cara Mudah Belajar Basic English Grammar. 
          Jakarta. Penerbit: PT Tangga Pustaka.
Silvester Goridus Sukur. 2009. Cepat Tuntas Kuasai Bahasa Inggris untuk
          SMA/ MA Kelas XII. Yogyakarta. Penerbit: Indonesia Cerdas.


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